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Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management

     来源:      发表时间:2021-04-12     浏览次数:     字号:    
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Journal of Environmental Management 213(2018) 135e141


Research article

Agricultural reuse of municipal wastewater through an integral water reclamation management

JuanCarloIntriagoa,*,FranciscoLo´pez-Ga´lvezb,AnaAllendeb,

GaetanoAlessandroVivaldic,SalvatoreCamposeoc,EmilioNicola´sNicola´sd,

JuanJose´Alarco´nd,FranciscoPedreroSalcedoc,d

aSub-Department of Environmental Technology (ETE), Wageningen University & Research, Droevendaalsesteeg 4, 6708 PB, Wageningen, The Netherlandsb Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario deEspinardo, 30100, Murcia,Spain

cDipartimentodiScienzeAgro-AmbientalieTerritoriali,Universita`degliStudidiBariAldoMoro,ViaAmendola165/A,70126,Bari,Italy

d Department of Irrigation, CEBAS-CSIC, Campus Universitario de Espinardo, 30100, Murcia, Spain



a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 30 July 2017 Received in revised form 19 December 2017

Accepted 2 February 2018

Available online 26 February 2018

Keywords: Reclaimed water Irrigation method Leafy greens

Solar-driven membranes


a b s t r a c t


The DESERT-prototype, a state-of-the-art compact combination of water treatment technologies based onltrationandsolar-basedrenewableenergy,wasemployedtoreclaimwaterforagriculturalirrigation. Water reclaimed through the DESERT-prototype (PW) from a secondary efuent of a wastewater treat-ment plant, as well as conventional irrigation water (CW) and the secondary efuent (SW) itself, wereemployed to cultivate baby romaine lettuces in a greenhouse in Murcia (Spain), by means of drip andsprinkler irrigation methods, thus establishing six treatments. Assessments of physicochemical and microbiologicalqualityofirrigationwater,aswellasagronomicandmicrobiologicalqualityofcropsfrom all treatments, showed that results associated to PW complied in all cases with relevant standards and guidelines. In contrast, results linked to SW and CW presented certain non-compliance cases of waterand crop microbiological quality. These assessments lead to conclude that the DESERT-prototype is an appropriate technology for safe water reclamation oriented to agricultural production, that can be complemented by a proper irrigation method in reaching safetytargets.

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.



1.Introduction

Waterscarcityisamainissuecurrentlyaffectingalargepartof the global population (Eslamian, 2016). Along with this reality, agriculture stands out as the economic sector with the highest water demands, representing about 70% of global freshwater withdrawalsworldwide(Eslamian,2016;TheWorldBankGroup,2016).Moreover,28%oftheglobalcroplandand56%oftheglobal irrigated cropland are located in areas under high (40e80%) or extremely high (>80%) water stress, based on the ratio of water withdrawaloveravailablewater(Gassertetal.,2013).Inthissense, waterreclaimedfrommunicipalwastewaterhasbecomeoneofthe major and less expensive non-conventional water sources for agriculture(Drechseletal.,2015;Eslamian,2016),whichis,with


* Corresponding author. Av. Bolivariana S/N y calle Chone, 130101 Portoviejo, Ecuador.

E-mail address: jcintriago@gmail.com (J.C. Intriago).


roughly 20 out of 200 million Ha of irrigated land worldwide (Jaramillo and Restrepo, 2017), the largest reclaimed water con- sumer (Lazarova et al., 2013), and one of the economic sectors in which its use shows its real benets (Younos and Parece, 2016).

Agriculturalirrigationwithreclaimedwaterbringsseveralad- vantages:reductionofpressureoverfreshwatersources(Eslamian,2016;Parsonsetal.,2010),presenceofnutrientsthatreducetheuse

of synthetic fertilizers (Lyu et al., 2016; Pedrero et al., 2013b; Vicente-Sa´nchezetal.,2014;Vivaldietal.,2015),higheryieldsthan freshwater-irrigated counterparts (Vergine et al., 2016; Vivaldietal.,2015),amongstothers.Contrariwise,waterreclamation

mismanagement may also arise negative impacts for both the environment and human health (Eslamian, 2016; Lazarova et al.,2013).Probablythemostrecognizedandcharacterizedconcernis the presence of pathogens that may enter the food chain(Castro-Iba´n~ezetal.,2015;Lo´pez-Ga´lvezetal.,2016b).Furthermore, cropsandsoilsmaybeaffectedduetoincreasingsalinity(Jime´nezandAsano,2008;Pedreroetal.,2010),phytotoxicelementscan


https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.02.011

0301-4797/© 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


136J.C. Intriago et al. / Journal of Environmental Management213 (2018) 135e141


affectgrowthofcropsreducingyields(Parsonsetal.,2010;Pedrero,2010), and the structure of soils may result damaged due to high sodicitylevels(Jime´nezandAsano,2008;Pedrero,2010).

There are several studies focused on the effects of different reclaimedwatersourcesovertreecrops(Nicola´setal.,2016; Pedreroetal.,2013a,2013b;PedreroandAlarco´n,2009;Vivaldiet al., 2015), as well as horticultural crops (Cirelli et al., 2012; Hoqueetal.,2010;Lo´pez-Ga´lvezetal.,2016b,2014).Fromthe latter,healthrisksassociatedtotheintakeofraw-eatenleafygreens irrigated with reclaimed water, such as lettuces, take particular attention(Castro-Iba´n~ezetal.,2015;Ceuppensetal.,2015; Makkaew et al., 2016; Sales-Ortells et al., 2015). In this respect, several studies highlight the relevance of irrigation methods in reducinghealthrisks(Lo´pez-G´alvezetal.,2016b;Qadiretal.,2010; Uyttendaele et al., 2015). Irrigation methods are one of the most relevant interventions within the World Health Organization (WHO) multiple-barrier approach, which offers, besides waste- water treatment, strategies at key points that aims to a safe agri- cultural production, avoiding recontamination and cross- contamination within the farm-to-fork cycle (Al-Baz et al., 2008; Drechsel et al., 2015